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How Did It Start
Coronaviruses are a big family of different viruses. Some of them cause the common cold in people. Others infect animals, including bats, camels, and cattle. But how did SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus that causes COVID-19, come into being?
Here’s what we know about the virus that was first detected in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and has set off a global pandemic.
Where Did the Coronavirus Come From?
Experts say SARS-CoV-2 originated in bats. That’s also how the coronaviruses behind Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) got started.
SARS-CoV-2 made the jump to humans at one of Wuhan’s open-air “wet markets.” They’re where customers buy fresh meat and fish, including animals that are killed on the spot.
Some wet markets sell wild or banned species like cobras, wild boars, and raccoon dogs. Crowded conditions can let viruses from different animals swap genes. Sometimes the virus changes so much it can start to infect and spread among people.
Still, the Wuhan market didn’t sell bats at the time of the outbreak. That’s why early suspicion also fell on pangolins, also called scaly anteaters, which are sold illegally in some markets in China. Some coronaviruses that infect pangolins are similar to SARS-CoV-2.
31 Dec 2019
Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China, reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei Province. A novel coronavirus was eventually identified.
1 January 2020
WHO had set up the IMST (Incident Management Support Team) across the three levels of the organization: headquarters, regional headquarters and country level, putting the organization on an emergency footing for dealing with the outbreak.
4 January 2020
WHO reported on social media that there was a cluster of pneumonia cases – with no deaths – in Wuhan, Hubei province.
5 January 2020
WHO published our first Disease Outbreak News on the new virus. This is a flagship technical publication to the scientific and public health community as well as global media. It contained a risk assessment and advice, and reported on what China had told the organization about the status of patients and the public health response on the cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan.
The story of mask requirements in the United States has had many twists and turns since the early days of the pandemic, when the U.S. surgeon general urged Americans to “STOP BUYING MASKS!”
Since then, government and public health leaders have urged us to wear face masks even when walking around our neighborhoods alone, and told us to keep wearing them even after receiving the protection of highly effective vaccines.
It wasn’t until May that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention told fully vaccinated Americans that they could be exempt from nearly all mask requirements. The state of California followed suit with rules that went into effect when the economy reopened on June 15.
Now, as the highly transmissible Delta variant causes coronavirus cases to spike across the nation, indoor mask mandates are back in L.A. County regardless of vaccination status, and the CDC has updated its guidance as well. On Tuesday, the agency advised that vaccinated people return to wearing masks indoors in parts of the U.S. where the virus is surging.
The question is – Why are waiting for the Delta variant to get worse before EVERY state implements the SAME MANDATE simultaneously?
What’s your response?
JOHANNESBURG — South Africa’s resurgence of COVID-19 is setting record numbers of new daily cases, centered in Johannesburg and driven by the delta …South Africa’s New Coronavirus Cases Surge to Record Levels
National Suicide Hot Line 800-273-8255
Veterans Crisis Line 800-273-8255
Understanding the issues concerning suicide and mental health is an important way to take part in suicide prevention, help others in crisis, and change the conversation around suicide.
Stress and depression can look and feel very similar to each other. Some of the common symptoms for both include issues with sleeping, eating, concentration, and mood, as well as difficulties performing daily tasks. Physically, there’s a lot of overlap between stress and depression, as both affect the immune system, leading to an increase in certain inflammatory markers.
For depressed patients, the changes in their brain are similar to what is observed in chronic stress. And chronic stress, when left untreated, can lead to depression. For example, adults who experienced a high level of adversity during their childhood, which results in toxic stress, have much higher rates of depression.
The biology is not the same, but they share a lot of similarities.
Here’s how to tell the difference between stress and depression.
Stress is phasic
When it comes to stress versus depression, there are distinct differences, especially when it comes to effective treatment options. One of the primary ways stress and depression differ is that stress can come and go.
Stress is something that is phasic for most people. You have a stressful period and you come out of it. Depression is not like that. Depression goes on for years in some people. It can spontaneously remit in some people, but not everybody.”
For example, if a happy event happens, such as friends or loved ones coming for a visit, a stressed person will be able to feel happy in that moment, although the stress will probably return once they have left. For a depressed person, they will not be able to feel happiness in that moment, even when they know they should.
If you can get home from work and still recharge, that’s not major, clinical depression, depression does not come and go.
So, what is the treatment for stress? Reducing it, through measures like exercise, meditation, and mindfulness, as well as reducing the source of the stress.
Depression is an illness
For a depressed person, although stress-reducing measures—such as exercise or going out into nature—can help, it will not cure them.
At certain levels of depression, nothing but medication will help.
Depression is, at its core, an illness of the brain. Just like we treat an infection with antibiotics, depression often requires medication. For someone with severe depression, no amount of “mind over matter” or “willing it away” will work. Instead, a person with depression needs medical treatment.
Depression is no different than any other illness, It is a medical illness.
If you are experiencing either stress or depression, the most important thing to know is that help is available, and that it can get better. For stress, that involves reducing the source of stress and finding ways to cope. For depression, that involves treatment, such as therapy and medication.
Whatever the right solution may be, know that there is one, and that taking the first step to getting the help you need may be the most important one of them all.
An Ohio police chief has resigned after he was reportedly caught putting a Ku Klux Klan sign on a black officer’s desk.
Anthony Campo, the chief of the Sheffield Lake Police Department, was caught on CCTV putting a piece of paper with “Klu Klux Klan” written on it, according to reports. He also laid out a jacket to look like robes worn by KKK members.
Yet – Ohio is the latest state considering legislation to prohibit public schools from teaching critical race theory, which views racism as systemic in the nation’s institutions and promotes race-based reverse discrimination to achieve equity.
African American Prisoners/Healthcare for COVID-19
I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me. Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distorting glass. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves or figments of their imagination, indeed, everything and anything except me. Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man (1952)
A Personal Story
I think there are great deal of folk that have had the experience of have a male family member incarcerated only to find out that they were not the same young man they knew before the incarceration. I don’t know that we all can identify when trying to reconnect that not only are they different, but we too have evolved this makes for strange bedfellows. Personally, I have interacted with a family member only to find myself more frustrated at the behavior of said individual than realizing he is different. I don’t know what it is like to be incarcerate (in jail) albeit I have my own struggles where I voluntarily opted for incarceration metaphorically. Non-the-less, I don’t know what it’s like to wake up in the same cage day after day, week after week, month after month, year after year and/or decade after decade. I haven’t got a clue what it must be like to be controlled i.e. told what to wear, when to get up when to lay down, when I can shower, when I can a make a phone call. I don’t know what it’s like to be locked up with nothing but men/women without any freedoms that you and I take for granted on any given day. I don’t know why the history of Black men has positioned a person to fall into the category of inmate, jail bird, or felon. I’ve heard the idea that the construction of prisons were/are constructed based on 3rd grade scores – Experts often cite third grade as a decisive year for students and schools. In fact, there is common folklore that asserts that public officials will forecast prison construction based on a state’s third-grade literacy rates. An article in The Atlantic called this phenomenon “An Urban Myth That Should Be True.” The article goes on to say, “U.S. prison planners don’t use local third-grade reading scores to predict future inmate populations. But maybe they should.” This is a two topic writing on the healthcare of the inmate and that of the Black American and Covid-19.
The persistent and pervasive notion of African American male criminality which was injected into the American consciousness during the post Reconstruction period persists steadfastly today in the United States. It is a driving force behind the nation ’ s post-1970 mass incarceration binge for which economically disadvantaged Black males are the primary victims. It also serves as fuel for insensitive comments, unwarranted surveillance, and other microaggressions such as those now in the media glare. Few African American males, regardless of their achievement, social standing or economic status, are immune to the stress associated with these subtle forms of hostility
Healthcare and the Inmate
Imprisonment, homicide, non-lethal assault and other crime, chronic and infectious disease, substance abuse, suicide, and accidents all contribute to the much wider gap in the community-level sex ratios found among African Americans compared to those observed found among other ethnic and racial groups in the United States. This wide array of causes and correlates of African American male mortality, disability, and confinement suggests that one area in need of interdisciplinary inquiry that examines the intersection between public health and public safety. These lines of inquiry must situate and contextualize the lived experiences of the African American male. Health analysts and social scientists across many disciplines have all studied African Americans and their communities extensively over the past decades because this population has disproportionately high levels of disease, disability, premature death, and exposure to the criminal justice system.
A large body of research has documented black, white disparities in health and mortality in the United States ( Adler & Rehkopf, 2008 ; Frisbie, Song, Powers, & Street, 2004 ; Geruso, 2012 ; Pampel, Krueger, & Denney, 2010 ; Williams & Jackson, 2005 ; Williams & Mohammed, 2009 ). Racial differences in socioeconomic status (e.g., income, education) largely account for these gaps with individual and institutional discrimination, residential segregation, and bias in healthcare settings also explaining some of the variation in black, white disparities (Braveman et al., 2011 ; Williams, 1999 ; Williams & Jackson, 2005 ).
Afro-American Healthcare & COVID-19
Speaking of the disparities in health care among Blacks and Whites brings me to another topic – Covid-19. As most people in the world are now acutely aware, an outbreak of COVID-19 was detected in mainland China in December of 2019. Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause mild to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). When an infected person coughs or sneezes, the new coronavirus may be transmitted through expelled droplets. These droplets can enter a person’s system through “contact routes,” such as the mouth, eyes, or nose. It is also possible for the droplets to be inhaled into the lungs.
The concept of COVID-19 hit the news airways like the plague. Folk ran out and emptied the grocery story of every roll of tissue paper, alcohol and contamination cleaning products. Addictions rose, folks died, both individuals and establishments lost their lives, and the country was shut down. This would cause the sanest person to question the reason for living.
Statistical data document that African Americans have a worse health profile and higher rate of death than White Americans for practically every illness. Broader surveys of self-assessed health using a comparative framework have found that African Americans are nearly twice as likely as White Americans to rate their health as “fair” or “poor,” and twice as likely as White Americans to rate their health as “fair” or “poor,” and that self-rated health is a strong predictor of sickness and early death (Bratter and Gorman, 2011). Middle-class African Americans have a better health profile than their less affluent counterparts, but many report serious health challenges as common in their families.
Much like the prisoner many Black Americans suffer the same inequalities of healthcare whether locked up or free. With that said how will Black Americans come out as the victor during these turbulent times?
What We Know
Black communities share common social and economic factors, already in place before the pandemic, that increase their risk for COVID-19. Those factors include:
- Living in crowded housing conditions. “Crowded living conditions are a difficult challenge that is the result of longstanding racial residential segregation and prior redlining policies,” Golden says. “It is difficult for 10 individuals living in a three-room apartment to appropriately physical distance.” She says advocacy on these broader policy issues could help prevent future disparities in disease outcomes.
- Working in essential fields. Golden notes that people working in environmental services, food services, the transportation sector and home health care cannot work from home. These positions put workers in close contact with others.
- Inconsistent access to health care due to lack of insurance or underinsurance. Being able to afford doctors’ visits, medications and equipment to manage chronic disease is essential to lowering the risk of death from COVID-19 and other conditions. For instance, a patient with badly controlled diabetes or asthma due to inconsistent treatment is more at risk for severe, even deadly, coronavirus infection.
- Chronic health conditions. Golden points out that people of color have a higher burden of chronic health conditions associated with a poor outcome from COVID-19, including diabetes, heart disease and lung disease. In a study cited by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 90% of those hospitalized with severe COVID-19 had at least one of these underlying medical conditions.
- Stress and immunity. Studies have proved that stress has a physiological effect on the body’s ability to defend itself against disease. Income inequality, discrimination, violence and institutional racism contribute to chronic stress in people of color that can wear down immunity, making them more vulnerable to infectious disease.
Why is that the Black American holds on to memories of years gone by when it comes to their health. The now infamous Tuskegee Syphilis study is perhaps the most widely known study exclusive to African Americans males. Yet in present day the number of references to this experiment in conjunction with the COVID-19 vaccine are astronomical. African Americans have experienced something that others have not: the unique combination of racism, slavery and segregation. It has caused African Americans to develop not only different behavioral patterns, values, and beliefs but also different definitions, standards, and differences in value systems and perspectives(Randall, 1996). Distrust of the health care system by African Americans runs from the feelings or ill gains for participation in clinical trials to being used only as guinea pigs. In addition, there are feelings by African Americans whether the physician, intentional or not, do treat minority patients differently than White patients (Lake, Snell, Perry, & Associates 2004). If that is true then the reluctance to take the vaccine is valid. Additionally many Americans feel that the vaccine was rushed and not enough due diligence has been put forth.
Missing my grand baby who I never met – gone too soon…
How does on group of humans reject another group?