#Juneteenth Never Forget

Juneteenth is a holiday celebrating the liberation of those who had been held as slaves in the United States. Originally a Texas state holiday, it is now celebrated annually on the 19th of June throughout the United States.

Ben Carson – Slaves and the Carnival Cruise Ship Filled with Hot Dying Men/Women and Children with Dreams and Aspiration of a Better Africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Dialectical Fluidity of Race

Between self-definition and other-definition, between an individual’s chosen racial identity versus society’s imposed racial identity — facilitates an understanding of race as a social construction

Ben Carson – Slaves and the Carnival Cruise Ship Filled with Hot Dying Men/Women and Children with Dreams and Aspiration of a Better Africa

WASHINGTON ― Ben Carson made his debut as secretary of Housing and Urban Development Monday by telling agency employees about the virtues of the “can-do” American society. Carson said this value system was best exemplified by slaves, whom he characterized as immigrants who came to the United States with very little and worked very hard.

“That’s what America is about,” Carson said. “A land of dreams and opportunity. There were other immigrants who came here in the bottom of slave ships, worked even longer, even harder for less. But they too had a dream that one day their sons, daughters, grandsons, granddaughters, great grandsons, great granddaughters might pursue prosperity and happiness in this land.”

By 1830 slavery was primarily located in the South, where it existed in many different forms. African Americans were enslaved on small farms, large plantations, in cities and towns, inside homes, out in the fields, and in industry and transportation.

Though slavery had such a wide variety of faces, the underlying concepts were always the same. Slaves were considered property, and they were property because they were black. Their status as property was enforced by violence — actual or threatened. People, black and white, lived together within these parameters, and their lives together took many forms.

Enslaved African Americans could never forget their status as property, no matter how well their owners treated them. But it would be too simplistic to say that all masters and slaves hated each other. Human beings who live and work together are bound to form relationships of some kind, and some masters and slaves genuinely cared for each other. But the caring was tempered and limited by the power imbalance under which it grew. Within the narrow confines of slavery, human relationships ran the gamut from compassionate to contemptuous. But the masters and slaves never approached equality.

View the Video Here

Black Group Identity

Work on Black group identity is not easy to characterize, in part because of relatively limited research on this issue, especially that which examines ethnic group differences (Porter and Washington, 1993). Typically, analysis highlights the influence of social class on identity (e.g., Landry, 1987; Farley, 1984). Some inquiry suggests that class is only a part of the puzzle. Broman et al. (1988) reveal that older, less-educated respondents in urban areas and highly-educated Blacks living outside the West were most likely to feel close to other Blacks. Gurin et al. (1989) show that identity, defined as common fate and as more Black than American, was not simply related to class. Males and those of upperclass status were more likely to feel a common fate with Blacks. Younger Blacks and those who did not work full-time were also more likely to feel more Black than American. Williams, T. K., & Thornton, M. C. (1998).

Introduction to the Subfield

The sociology of race and ethnicity began to take shape in the late 19th century. The American sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, who was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. at Harvard, is credited with pioneering the subfield within the United States with his famous and still widely taught books The Souls of Black Folk and Black Reconstruction.

However, the subfield today differs greatly from its early stages. When early American sociologists focused on race and ethnicity, du Bois excepted, they tended to focus on the concepts of integration, acculturation, and assimilation, in keeping with the view of the U.S. as a “melting pot” into which difference should be absorbed. Concerns during the early 20th century were for teaching those who differed visually, culturally, or linguistically from the white Ango-Saxon norms how to think, speak, and act in accordance with them. This approach to studying race and ethnicity framed those who were not white Anglo-Saxon as problems that needed to be solved and was directed primarily by sociologists who were white men from middle to upper-class families.

As more people of color and women became social scientists throughout the twentieth century, they created and developed theoretical perspectives that differed from the normative approach in sociology, and crafted research from different standpoints that shifted the analytic focus from particular populations to social relations and the social system.

Note: Ben Carson you should take another look…

Source:  Huffington Post

Source:  The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, George P. Rawick, General Editor, with A Comprehensive Name Index for The American Slave, compiled by Howard E. Potts and Subject Index, from Index to The American Slave, edited by Donald M. Jacobs, assisted by Steven Fershleiser.

Source:  PBS

Source: Williams, T. K., & Thornton, M. C. (1998). Social construction of ethnicity versus personal experience: The case of afro-amerasians. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(2), 255-267. Retrieved from http://nclive.org/cgi-bin/nclsm?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/232586794?accountid=13217

Watch Night 2017

On this day in 1770, America’s first-known “watch-night” service was held at St. George’s Methodist Church in Philadelphia.

watchnight

The Black Community

On This date in 1862 the first Watch Night Services were celebrated in Back communities in America.

The Watch Night service can be traced back to gatherings also known as “Freedom’s Eve.” On that night, Black slaves and free blacks came together in churches and private homes all across the nation awaiting news that the Emancipation Proclamation actually had become law.  At the stroke of midnight, it was January 1, 1863; all slaves in the Confederate States were declared legally free. When the news was received, there were prayers, shouts and songs of joy as many people fell to their knees and thanked God.

Huffington Post

“Watch Night Service” in the Black Church in America symbolizes the historical fact, that on the night of Dec. 31, 1862 during the Civil War, free and freed blacks living in the Union States gathered at churches and/or other safe spaces, while thousands of their enslaved black sisters and brothers stood, knelt and prayed on plantations and other slave holding sites in America — waiting for President Abraham Lincoln to sign the Emancipation Proclamation into law. The Emancipation Proclamation legally recognized that the Civil War was fought for slavery.

Methodist

There’s another explanation of the Watch Night Service.  It is said that the slaves in the Old Suth would gather in desperation on the last night of the year to await news regarding which of them would be sold on New Year’s Day to satisfy their masters’ outstanding debts.  Which is unlikely considering they would have no reason to wait for January 1st to sell slaves to pay off creditors.

The practice may have begun with the Moravians, a small Christian denomination in Europe held in 1733 on the estate of a German count.

On this day in 1770, America’s first-known “watch-night” service was held at St. George’s Methodist Church in Philadelphia.

Watch Night services are a tradition started by John Wesley, the founder of the United Methodist Church. In all honesty, he borrowed the tradition from Moravian Christians that used them as a late-night vigil for the faithful; however, as time marched on, John molded this into a New Year’s Eve service where Christians were invited to review the year, confess to sins and pray for the year ahead. These services remain in Methodist worship manuals as “Covenant Renewal Services.

What are you watching for on this 2016 – 2017 Watchnight?

Source:

http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/first-watch-night-service-occurs

http://blackchristiannews.com/2016/12/john-wesley-the-methodist-church-and-the-history-of-the-first-watch-night-service/

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rev-joan-r-harrell/watch-night-service-in-the-black-church-in-america-150-years-_b_2389965.html

From Christmas to Twelfth Night in Southern Illinois by John J. Dunphy

Black History – What You May Not Know About the Women

I want something a little more than the same ol’ Bus Story, the Underground Train, The Book Writer, and the Little Rock Story… you know the “Safe” Black Women

avant-nicoleNicole Avant served a two-year term as U.S. Ambassador to the Bahamas from 2009 to 2011. President Barack Obama nominated her for the position in 2009 and after U.S. Senate confirmation, Hilary Clinton, then Secretary of State, swore her into office on September 9, 2009.  Avant arrived in Nassau, the capital of the Bahamas, and presented her credentials on October 22, 2009.

Avant, born on March 6, 1968, is the daughter of Clarence Avant and Jacqueline Avant, both veterans of the music recording industry.  She graduated from California State University Northridge with a B.A. in communications in 1984.  Soon afterwards she joined A&M Records in Los Angeles and worked in its promotions division until 1998 when she was named Vice President of Interior Music Publishing. Avant was also an actress who had appeared in television shows such as JAG, Moesha and the Bernie Mac Show.

 Source: Black Past
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As I began to think about Black History for 2017 I started my search in usual fashion – entering “Black History” into the search box and clicking and pointing and deleting those unnecessary automatic downloads. It occurred to me as it has a hundred times before, I want something a little more than the same ol’ Bus Story, the Underground Train, The Book Writer, and the Little Rock Story… you know the “Safe” Black Women that educators in elementary and unfortunately secondary school don’t mind the over abundance of retelling those great stories about some incredible Black Women.

 

angela-davis

This time around I’m hungry for something more, something a lot more shocking and mind opening to idea of really gauging how far we have not come in the Land of the Free and Home of the Brave.

Ride with me on my quest to find those little unknown stories about Black African-American Women and the stories they died to tell…

During the 1820’s Susan Jackson of Savannah, Georgia, ran a popular pastry shop in Reynolds Ward, the leading business section of the city, and during the next decade Eliza Seymour Lee owned a popular hotel in Charleston, South Carolina.

Source: Made available courtesy of The Journal of Women’s Studies , Inc.:

Did You Know

March 3, 1820 – Missouri Compromise was accepted by Congress. Missouri is admitted as a slave state in exchange for Maine’s admittance as a free state on condition that slavery be abolished in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase.

 

butStay Tuned…

That Winch Over There…

African American Slave Baby

Have you ever been called a “winch” or a “hoe”? I have often heard Black women refer to each other as winches, hoes, and bitches.  The terms sound much like a term of endearment, a term which defines their friendship as very close.  Black women can, have and will refer to their friends as bitches, but that term can become a “fighting” word when used by the “wrong” person, i.e. someone they dislike.  I would think that in the 21st century we would no longer have a need to refer to each other using such derogatory adjectives.
The children in school call each other the same names and does anyone know what a “motherfucker” really is or where the term is derived from?  Well, I looked it up and it’s defined as according to Dictionary.com , “a mean, despicable, or vicious person…” If that be true, then our young men and women are apparently using the term incorrectly.  From what I have heard and seen the term is occasionally used to describe a person that has performed some type of farce or  something negative.  This term is used by both male and females towards each other.   Hmm, I wonder of they knew the definition –  would they use the term so effortlessly?
While looking through the history of North Carolina’s school system I came across a document titled, “The Beginnings of Public Education in North Carolina; A Documentary History, 1790-1840. Volume I:” and I was shocked to read the following excerpt:
“But the present-day idea that it is the duty of the State to provide education for all, regardless of race or financial condition, is nowhere clearly stated in these documents, except in the memorial of the Friends, sent to the legislature of 1834, wherein they protest against certain repressive slavery laws such as prohibiting slaves and free negroes from preaching and making it a crime to teach a slave to read and to write. This memorial boldly declared “it unnecessary to urge the incontrovertible arguments that might be advanced from reason and Religion, to prove that it is the indispensable duty of the Legislature of a Christian people to enact laws and establish regulations for the literary instruction of every class, within its limits; and that such provisions should be consistent with sound policy, tend to strengthen the hands of Government and promote the peace and harmony of the community at large.” This fine educational statement, far in advance of the times, fell on deaf ears. Some of our so-called wisest men of that day continued to talk about “the education of the poor” and to introduce measures for the education of that class and to propose still harsher measures governing slaves. But Jeremiah Hubbard, or whoever wrote this Friends’ memorial, was the wisest educational prophet of the period, in that he saw clearly the necessity of educating all classes of the people and the futility of making laws to repress the natural instinct of all human beings for more knowledge.”
Meanwhile back at the ranch…
Stumbling upon this next piece (See Below) that speaks to the winch which was the catalyst for this story along with a news story that ran a few days ago here in Charlotte, NC.  The local news aired a story about a group of female students who allegedly beat up an Administrator in the school.  The video showed several girls beating on the woman at Harding University High School.  My emotions remained calm – I thought to myself, “If those young ladies only knew the depth of who they were and the value they could leave behind as beautiful black intelligent woman who should want to make a choice to make a difference in their lives and lives of their “increase” not only would they not engage in such behavior, but they would have such a humble sense of pride in their walk, talk, and overall characteristic behavior.
“Will of Alexander Dickson,
(June 19, 1813.)
IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN, I, Alexander Dickson, of the county of Duplin, being infirm in Body, but of sound and perfect memory, blessed be God, do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in manner and form following, that is to say,
All landed property to be sold.
IMPRIMIS. My will is, and so I direct, that all my just debts and personal expenses be first paid out of my estate by my Executors hereinafter named. It is my will and desire that all my Lands be sold at Public Auction by my executors, for the highest price that may be got, in the following manner, that is to say, the Manor Plantation containing 300 acres bought of Joseph Dickson, deceased, The 213 acres adjoining the same bought of Austin Beasley, and 4 1-2 acres adjoining that, where the dead tree is, bought of Thomas McGee and 86 acres between his own and Joseph Brays lines, bought of said Bray, containing in the whole 716 1-4 acres, which said parcels of land, as above described, is to be sold all in one lott. Also 150 acres on the West side of Maxwell Swamp on the head of Jimmie’s Branch bought of Abner Huggins, that to be sold in one lott. Also 50 acres on the South side of the head of . . . . . . . . Branch, bought of Robert Dickson, deceased. Also 50 acres adjoining the same, at the East end and joining John McGowan’s line, Patented by myself, the two above mentioned pieces to be sold in one lott. Also 300 acres, or thereabouts, below the cross roads and on both sides of the main road, adjoining and between Gabriel H. James, Robert Dickson and John Hunter’s lines to be sold in one lott, Patented by myself.
Bequest to John Dickson.
Item–I leave and bequeath to my nephew John Dickson (son of my Brother Robert Dickson, of Cumberland County, Blockers Ferry) my young Negro Winch named Amy and her increase to him and his heirs forever.”
Lastly, those of us who know that we know that we know, must present ourselves holy and acceptable in all that we do and with all that we come in contact with.  Sure we may make mistakes and find ourselves overwhelmed with emotion when tragedy strikes, but we must continue to press towards the mark of the high calling.  We all have a calling that one way or another we must engage in. We must present ourselves as a mother and father to our children, as wives and husbands to our spouses,  as teacher and educator to our students, as guardian to the unattended, and as visionaries to the lost.
We must set the standard in all that we do to foster the “inside emotional” growth of our young adults.   It would behoove us to no longer answer to names which are not imprinted on our birth certificates…
MsConcerned